Job demands – resources (JD-R) model developed by Arnold Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti explores occupational stress and ways of dealing with it. This model aims at explaining human behavior where in spite of demanding jobs employees thrive. Research scholars Bakker and Demerouti published their findings on occupational stress and employee well being in The Journal of Managerial Psychology in 2006. JD-R model is helpful in predicting employee involvement in any job, employee burnout ratio and also group performance.
This model is a better alternative to contemporary employee well-being models as it seeks to address several issues together. According to Bakker and Demerouti, contemporary models on employee well-being had limitations in their approach and did not address all categories of employees or organizations. Both of them are of the opinion that employee well-being is a function of working condition which is defined by job demands and job resources.
Job demands – These include emotional and physical stressors in a job environment. Heavy workload, ambiguous responsibilities, time pressure, poor interpersonal relationship, and stressful work environment and emotional labor are demands that are countered by an employee. All these constitute the negatives in a work environment.